Flow measurement

Hazards[ edit ] Ceilometers that use visible light can sometimes be fatal to birds, as the animals become disoriented by the light beams and suffer exhaustion and collisions with other birds and structures. Using optical instruments such as binoculars near ceilometers is not recommended, because lenses in instruments could concentrate the beam and damage one’s eyes. Optical drum ceilometer[ edit ] An optical drum ceilometer uses triangulation to determine the height of a spot of light projected onto the base of the cloud. It consists essentially of a rotating projector, a detector, and a recorder. The projector emits an intense beam of light above into the sky at an angle that varies with the rotation. The detector, which is located at a fixed distance from the projector, uses a photodetector pointing vertically. When it detects the projected light return from the cloud base, the instrument notes the angle and the calculation gives the height of clouds. A laser pulse with a duration on the order of nanoseconds is sent through the atmosphere. As the beam travels through the atmosphere, tiny fractions of the light are scattered by aerosols.

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If it’s the last thing I do! The world’s most famous crook! He is the captain of a crew of pirates aboard the Jolly Roger and the archenemy of Peter Pan. Captain Hook has long since abandoned sailing the high seas in favor of having revenge on Peter Pan for cutting off his left hand and feeding it to Tick-Tock, considering it, by Mr. Smee , a “childish prank”.

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Gas[ edit ] Gases are compressible and change volume when placed under pressure, are heated or are cooled. A volume of gas under one set of pressure and temperature conditions is not equivalent to the same gas under different conditions. Liquid[ edit ] For liquids, various units are used depending upon the application and industry, but might include gallons U. Primary flow element[ edit ] A primary flow element is a device inserted into the flowing fluid that produces a physical property that can be accurately related to flow.

For example, an orifice plate produces a pressure drop that is a function of the square of the volume rate of flow through the orifice. A vortex meter primary flow element produces a series of oscillations of pressure. Generally the physical property generated by the primary flow element is more convenient to measure than the flow itself. The properties of the primary flow element, and the fidelity of the practical installation to the assumptions made in calibration, are critical factors in the accuracy of the flow measurement.

The stopwatch is started when the flow starts, and stopped when the bucket reaches its limit. The volume divided by the time gives the flow rate. For continuous measurements, we need a system of continually filling and emptying buckets to divide the flow without letting it out of the pipe. These continuously forming and collapsing volumetric displacements may take the form of pistons reciprocating in cylinders, gear teeth mating against the internal wall of a meter or through a progressive cavity created by rotating oval gears or a helical screw.

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Yes, I have trouble keeping track of the various problems, changes, and solutions to my devices over months of time. It’s funny how often I come here to see what I did about a particular problem. Nice way to keep a diary of this kind of thing. Notice also that the loop routine only calculates the power, updates the watchdog, and updates the alarm timer. If it hangs in a loop somewhere the watchdog will reset it and start over.

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Gas[ edit ] Gases are compressible and change volume when placed under pressure, are heated or are cooled. A volume of gas under one set of pressure and temperature conditions is not equivalent to the same gas under different conditions. Liquid[ edit ] For liquids, various units are used depending upon the application and industry, but might include gallons U.

Mechanical flow meters[ edit ] A positive displacement meter may be compared to a bucket and a stopwatch. The stopwatch is started when the flow starts, and stopped when the bucket reaches its limit. The volume divided by the time gives the flow rate. For continuous measurements, we need a system of continually filling and emptying buckets to divide the flow without letting it out of the pipe. These continuously forming and collapsing volumetric displacements may take the form of pistons reciprocating in cylinders, gear teeth mating against the internal wall of a meter or through a progressive cavity created by rotating oval gears or a helical screw.

The piston meter operates on the principle of a piston rotating within a chamber of known volume.

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Sep 18,  · This video is for entertainment purposes only. Please consult with a licensed electrician before performing any electrical work.

When you pass the wires to be metered through the tubes in the body of the meter, this also passes the wires through the internal CTs. In other words will I have to disconnect my existing sub panel wires to install or can it simply clip around the wires? Thank you 1 answers by robertc 5 days ago 0 0 Notify me by email when answer received: If you cannot disconnect your wires, you can use our EKM Omnimeter with split core current transformers instead, which will simply clip over the wires when they are still in place: For a 50 Hz meter I would recommend one of our Omnimeter models as they can handle both 50 Hz and 60 Hz.

You can find the Omnimeters here: I would use one of our Omnimeter models for this, because they use external CTs. As long as you only pass wires from the same phase through each CT, this will work. If you put 2 wires through the same CT that are on different phases, they will cancel each other out.

Flow measurement

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A meter socket houses the electricity meter for your home and can also be known as a meter base. The meter itself is provided by your utility company and used to calculate your monthly bills. Individual states may have slightly different legislation about requirements for the meter socket but for the most part the installation is standard across the country.

Step 1 – Check Regulations Although the regulations are relatively standard across the country you should check for any local exceptions or requirements before commencing work. Some utility companies provide the meter socket as well as the actual meter so you should check that with them in advance so that you don’t buy extra equipment or carry out any unnecessary work.

Step 2 — Assemble Components Assemble the meter loop piping and base socket, adhering to the regulations put in place by the supplying utility. The placement of this assembly must be correct and allow the utility company access when they require it. Make sure that clearances around the meter socket area are in line with recommended guidelines. You should check specifics, but in general terms the meter socket must be placed at least 10 inches from any obstruction above or to either side, 5 feet up from the finished grade and with 3 square feet of access space kept clear at all times.

Step 3 — Position Power Feed Lines The power feed wires should be of the correct rating for the overall amperage capacity required on your circuit.

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The uniquely designed OmniX is tuned to multiple bands, giving it wide frequency coverage. Unlike antennas that were originally designed for the ham bands and then marketed as a scanner antenna, the OmniX was specifically designed for scanner radio use and tuned to popular commercial and civil service bands.

Elements are specifically tuned for MHz, MHz and MHz, but other bands can be received as well.

The base of the vertical is on the left. The first section is ” in diameter. Two 1 foot long coupler sections were cut off this tube, leaving a 4 foot (48″) base section.

These resistors are connected together with a coiled cord. A digital display is attached to one of the encapsulated resistor housings. Attach each encapsulated resistor to a hot stick of appropriate length for the voltages to be tested. Circuit Potential Testing — The digital high voltage meter can be used for measuring high voltage on cable. This includes phase to phase and phase to ground KV. Three modes of operation are available: Maximum value of voltage range is displayed.

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Electrical cum hand operated For Compression test on Concrete or similar materials. Suitable for use on Concrete Cubes of any size upto 5cm x 5cm x 5cm, 7. The load is applied thru hydraulick assembly. The lower platen is on the Hydraulic ram, and upper having a spherical seating is adjustable. The machine is provided with an air release valve and the load is automatically indicated on the 15 cms diam hydraulic pressure calibrated against an N.

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Jun 15,  · I think your hots are correctly labeled, but the white should go to the lug to the left of where your white arrow is. The POCO will probably use .

The microphone generates a signal from rail-to-rail, 0V to 3. The relay shield I purchased uses pins 2, 7, 8 and 10 so the test LEDs were wired to these output pins for initial testing. The d simulator does not have a predefined model for the microphone so I needed a way to generate wave forms for testing. I was only interested in peak-to-peak levels so frequency and shape of the generated wave form did not matter, only the amplitude of the wave form was important.

Even with smoothing of the samples, a certain amount of hysteresis was also required to prevent flapping between display states. The following code snippet contains my initial approach to reading the input and managing the display updates based on peak-to-peak signal amplitude. ArduinoFFT While these articles were great news, using the single sample ADC read method in the Arduino library was not going to provide sufficient sampling frequencies to get the level of accuracy I was looking for.

The following code fragment illustrates the configuration of the ADC in free-run mode with the use of an interrupt to signal the readiness of a sample. In free-run mode, the ADC samples the signal as fast as it can. When a sample is ready, the ADC fires an interrupt to signal to the application that a new sample is ready.

The interrupt is handled by an interrupt service routine ISR. When the ADC interrupt triggers, the processor pauses the main loop of the application, interrupting it, whenever a new sample is ready. The processor then executes the appropriate ISR.

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